Pathophysiology of Diabetes

Diabetes is a disease caused when the body doesn’t produce or properly use insulin. Insulin is a hormone needed to convert sugar and starches into energy for daily life. Diabetes is a metabolic disorder during which the body has a reduced ability (or none at all) to produce the hormone insulin or the insulin is inactivated (insulin resistance).

Causes are mystery still, but it seems both genetics and environmental factors like lack of exercise and obesity play a role in it.
346 million people worldwide have diabetes. Millions of  people die from consequences of high blood sugar. More than 80% of diabetes deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries.

TYPE 1 Diabetes: It is found in children and young adults, termed juvenile diabetes. The body fails to produce insulin needed to break glucose to glycogen and to release energy. This is polygenic.

TYPE 2 Diabetes: This occurs dues to insulin resistance. The body doesn’t use insulin/ cells become resistant to insulin properly or the cell rejects insulin, leading to deficiency in insulin. It is a serious problem in the most part of the world right now mostly because of obesity. The result of this is sugar builds up in the blood stream because it is not sent to cell.

  •       Cells are starved for energy
  •       Over time high blood glucose levels may hurt kidneys, eyes, nerves and heart.