A preposition is a word placed before a noun or a pronoun to show in what relation the person or thing denoted by it stands in regard to something else.
Example: The book in the shelf; the preposition in shows the relationship between the book and the shelf.) The preposition is almost always before the noun or pronoun and that is why it is called a preposition.
1. There is a donkey in the street
2. Ben is fond of music
3. The boy jumped over the fence
In sentence 1, the word shows a relation between two things – Donkey and street. The preposition joins a noun to another noun.
In sentence 2, the word shows a relation between the attribute expressed by the adjective fond and music. The preposition joins a noun to and adjective.
In sentence 3, the word shows the relation between the action expressed by the verb jumped and the fence. The preposition joins a noun to a verb.
In, of, over are prepositions.
- I will see you on Thursday.
- The week begins on Sunday.
- We are having a party on the 15th of August.
At is used to designate specific times with noon, night, midnight, and with the time of day:
- My plane leaves at noon.
- The movie starts at 6 p.m.
In is used in nonspecific times during a day, a month, a year, a season:
- She likes to sleep in the evening .
- The days are long in Summer.
- The movie was released in 1999.
- The pollen allergies will rise in spring.
To express extended time, since, for, by, from—to, from-until, during,(with)in
- Manu has been gone since yesterday. (Manu left yesterday and has not returned.)
- He is going to Pune for a month. (He will spend a month there.)
- The circus showed from August to October. (Beginning in August and ending in October.)
- The posters were up from spring until fall. (Beginning in spring and ending in fall.)
- I play guitar during the evening. (For some period of time in the evening.)
- We must finish the project within a week. (No longer than a week.)
Prepositions of place at, on, in:
We use at for specific addresses.
- Mr. Ron lives at Elf Road near the mountains.
- We use on for names of streets, avenues etc.
- The University is on Parliament Road.
We use in for the names of land areas. (towns, counties, states, countries, and continents)
- Henry lives in London.
- Noida is in Uttar Pradesh.
- Taj Mahal is in Agra.
- There is a monster in the room.
- Ray kept the present inside the box.
- He left the books on the table.
- Karim was waiting at the corner.
Higher than a point
To express notions of an object being higher than a point: over, above.
- The cow jumped over the moon
- Hang that umbrella above the couch.
Lower than a point
To express notions of an object being lower than a point: under, underneath, beneath, below.
- The squirrel burrowed under the ground.
- The dog hid underneath the blanket.
- The book is beneath the table.
- The valley is below sea-level.
Close to a point
To express notions of an object being close to a point: near, by, next to, between, among, opposite.
- Their house is near the school.
- There is a salon shop by the store.
- A Cherry tree grows next to my house
- The house is between Jillian Street and Mangrove Street.
- I found my phone lying among the books.
- The hotel is opposite that building.
To introduce objects of verbs
At: glance, laugh, look, rejoice, smile, stare
- Narcissus glanced at his reflection. (exception with mirror: Narcissus glanced in the mirror.)
- You didn’t laugh at his joke.
- She is looking at the computer monitor.
- The country rejoiced at his safe arrival.
- That pretty girl smiled at you.
- Stop staring at me.
Of: approve, consist, smell
- I don’t approve of his actions
- His contribution to the country consists of many sacrifices.
- He came home smelling of alcohol.
Of (or about): dream, think
- I dream of finishing the project in four days.
- Can you think of an alphabet between a to z?
- We were thinking about this problem.
For: call, hope, look, wait, watch, wish
- Did someone call for an appointment?
- Rob hopes for a raise in salary next year.
- We hope for a better future.
- Kate is looking for my glasses.
- We’ll wait for Manu here.
- You go buy the tickets and I’ll watch for the train.
- If you wish for a success in this venture, you should work hard.
- We travelled by train. (not by the train or a train)
- He went to school by bike.
- Siraj went there on my bike.
- We travelled in Mr. Rob’s minivan.
- They came in a taxi.
- I’ll go on the 7.15 bus.
- That is the girl (whom) I was speaking of.
- These are the papers ( which) we were looking for.
- What are you thinking of?
- Which of these messages did you finish looking at?
- This I insist on. No one should go home today.
- We did it last month.
- She can’t walk a mile.
- Wait a second.
- My friend lives ———– Park’s Avenue.
- He will be ready to leave ———— twenty minutes
- Since he met his new girl friend, Shawn never seems to be —— home
- The child responded —– throwing tantrums.
- I will wait —– 6.p.m., but then I am going to the movie.
- What are the main points given —– this passage?
- He is named—– his grandfather.
- Tom stayed up —- 2 a.m. in the morning.
- We frequently see about violence —– the T.V
- I told her we will be there —- an hour.